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托福口考高分您需要了解哪些?

时间:2019-09-29 11:31来源:江苏朗阁外语培训中心 作者:toby
  在托福备考过程中,口语作为输出考试项,一直是同学们比较头疼的部分。按类别来讲,托福口语分为独立任务和综合任务。独立任务是话题相对灵活的task1和task2,综合任务是指以校园生活为主题的task3和task5,以及学术内容为主的task4和task6。task3和task4涵盖一段英文阅读材料、听力内容和后面的口语问题;task5和task6只含有听力内容,要求根据内容回答问题。
  在准备托福口语时,还需要了解它的评分标准是什么。俗话说得好,知己知彼,方能百战不殆嘛!So,托福口语的评分标准,大致就是从这三个维度来检测学生的口语能力:delivery,language use 和 development。
  1、delivery侧重考查我们的整体流利度,我们的表达是否流畅;2、language use考查语言运用能力,即语句的复杂层次性和词汇的灵活多变性;3、development指的是考生是否能够有条理、有逻辑地表达出自己的想法;当我们了解了托福口语的评分标准后,在准备过程中就会有的放矢,全面提升自己的口语表达能力。
  我们以task 1 和 task 2为例,它也并称为独立口语(Independent tasks),具体考察形式如下:
  In task 1, you need to express and defend a personal choice from a given category.
  In task 2, you need to defend a personal choice between two contrasting behaviors or courses of action.
  独立口语的话题大多开放而灵活,且仅有短短15秒的准备时间和45秒的回答时间。如此一来,使之成为了众多中国考生眼里的难题。尤其是当遇到一些“高深”或“生僻”的话题时,更是连用中文都难以说好,比如以下这些题目:
  1、Should students be required to evaluate their professors at the end of the semester? (Task 1)2、Which of the following skills would you like to learn? Explain why. 1. Playing the piano 2. Swimming 3. Repairing a car. (Task 1)3、Some people think that the government should invest money on art and culture like museums and theatres. Others don’t think so. What is your opinion? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice.  (Task 2)See,以上这些独立口语题目,其考察重点并非仅仅是英语语言能力,而是考生们对特定对象或观点的描绘,论述能力,而这些能力则直接由考生的思维模式所决定。
  因此对于我们中国学生来说,要想轻松玩转独立口语,真正要做的是转变思维,即:摒弃“Question & Answer” 的“问答型”思维,转而拥抱 “Tell a story” 的“讲故事”模式,以此来征服托福独立口语。
  举个Task 1 的例子来感受一下“讲故事”思维的具体应用:
  Describe a person in your family whose personality or behavior is very different from yours. Please give your answer with specific details.
  一道典型的人物描述类话题,要求考生描述家庭中的一员,其性格或行为与己不同,并加以详细说明。如果沿用传统的“问答题” 思路,考生往往只会想到一些大而化之的论点:如 父亲如何理性,母亲如何细致,祖父如何传统等等。而一旦陷入这种思维模式,该题目就变得极难回答,或者只能进行生硬的模板式回答。
  所以,在面对此类题目时,一定要转变思路,开启讲故事模式!具体步骤如下:
  Step 1: 快速确定对象 “the person”
  本题目中的要描述的人物究竟是谁,其实并不重要,因此考生应该快刀斩乱麻,选一位你最熟悉,并且可以做一定基本情况介绍的家庭成员即可。比如,选择父亲:my father.
  Step 2:Brainstorm – “Different personalities/ behavior”
  OK, 你的父亲究竟有哪些不同于你的性格或行为呢?
  此时,千万不要谈论什么 “mature” “responsible”或者“experienced”等大而空泛的点。相反,我们的选择标准应该是 :simple, personal and related to a specific story. 简言之就,接地气,接地气,接地气(重要的事情说三遍)。比如,my father likes to:
  Wake up very early during the holiday
  Get angry easily when playing chess
  Eat a lot at night
  Square dancing every weekends
  怎么样,上述这些切入点不仅简单易懂,十分接地气,更关键得是极其利于进一步的展开,并引出一个生动详细的故事或例子,而这些,恰恰是高分独立口语的必备内容。
  Step 3:添油加醋,绘声绘色的讲故事
  这一步是最核心,也是最考验功力的一步。
  以“Wake up very early during the holiday”为例,要想描述好这一行为,必须要通过 “编制细节”“添油加醋”“渲染气氛”等手段来讲述一个简单易懂却生动详实的故事出来。比如:
  During the spring festival
  Wake up as early as 5 o’clock
  Freezing cold outside
  Getting up and then cooking, cleaning or watching TV, etc.
  OK,经过以上三步,一篇优秀的Task 1 口语作答就呼之欲出了。
  Here comes the sample answer:
  “Ok, this question reminds me of my father, he is an excellent engineer, quite tall and handsome. We share a lot of similarities, but there is one thing we are very different in:my dad likes to wake up very early in the morning, even during the holiday!
  For example, during the last spring festival, it was a 10-days holiday, but my dad kept waking up as early as 5 o’clock in the morning. I mean, that was in January, freezing cold winter. So my dad got up that early and usually did some exercise and cleaning maybe, sometimes he would cook the breakfast for us, or just watched the TV and did nothing else.
  So in all, that’s my dad, who has a weird habit of getting up extremely early. And for me, I would probably never do such a thing in my life.”
  这个范例答案,其细节部分都是“杜撰”得来,然而内容合情合理,通俗易懂。更重要的是,该答案讲述了一个生动形象,丰富饱满的故事,可以想象,在听到这样一个答案时,任何一个评分考官都会不自觉的产生共鸣,连连点赞。
  再加上,答案中的遣词造句简单明了,地道自然,凸显了考生高超的口语能力,因此绝对能使其在一众充斥大话空话的模板式回答中脱颖而出,拿到高分。
  OK,以上就是“故事性”思维在Task 1中的应用示范。
  接下来,再给大家看一道Task 2的例题:
  When you earn a little extra money, is it better to spend your money or is it better to save your money for some time in the future?
  一道关于金钱观的问题,无论选择“花钱”还是“存钱”,想要回答好,关键还是在于思路是否正确。如果使用“问答型”思维模式,考生很容易陷入“金钱如何合理使用”这一宏大话题的陷阱,从而说出一篇空泛虚无的回答。
  反之,如果启动“讲故事”思维模式,这道看似复杂高深的问题又会变得无比简单明了。比如,如果对于选择“花掉”的考生来说,这道题就可以变为:
  “Describe something that you spend a little extra money on and makes you very happy”
  而对于选择“存钱”的考生来说,这道题就可以变为:
  “What will you do if you’ve saved a little extra money?”
  See? 无论是选择哪一方,相信此时的大家都有很多话可以讲。这里,再给大家奉上一篇原创范例答案:
  “Well if I’ve got some extra money, I will probably just spend it at the moment.
  OK, um… I totally understand that there will be a lot of people who will choose to save the money, but I firmly believe that people should live at the moment and “enjoy every bit of life to the fullest”. It’s called “carpe diem”.
  For example, last summer, I did a 2-months intern and earned some extra money, nearly 4,000 RMB. Well, I could surely save it for further use, but I’ve spent all of it to get myself a brand new laptop. Well, my old laptop could work, but it was too slow and the new one had so many amazing features, like touchable screen, pad mode, and it was thinner, lighter and much faster!
  And just as I expected, the new laptop gave me enormous fun and made my life and work much more convenient. So again, I would like to spend the money rather than save it.”
  可以看到,这篇回答的主体部分其实是描述了一件非常小的事情 – 买新电脑,但足以说明考生的观点,并且因为有充足而生动的细节,使其再次成为出类拔萃的回答。这就是“讲故事”思路的四两拨千金的威力。
  此外, 该答案在开头处还提及了反方观点:“um… I totally understand that there will be a lot of people who will choose to save the money …” , 以及引用著名格言:“enjoy every bit of life to the fullest”. It’s called “carpe diem”… 这些都是取得高分的妙方绝技。对于想要挑战口语 25+ 的同学来说,一定要认真学习并掌握。
 

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